Background: Characterization of ovarian masses is essentially required and inevitable for optimization of clinical decision making, patient care and management. The diagnosis of ovarian masses is a frequent dilemma in clinical work. Ultrasonography remains the modality of choice in the early investigation of suspected adnexal masses because of its availability and being a safe modality.
Aim: To review the current literature on different patterns of manifestation of ovarian masses on ultrasound and its various modes, helping in differential diagnosis on the basis of morphologic, vascular and other characteristics as seen on ultrasound.
Methods: Electronic database was searched (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science direct) with data ranging from year 2000 to 2021. Most relevant studies, relating to sonographic appearances of ovarian masses were selected.
Results: Twenty five most relevant articles were found: 8 articles were regarding gray-scale ultrasound, 3 articles regarding three dimensional ultrasonography, 2 articles regarding contrast enhanced ultrasonography, 2 regarding elastography and rest were regarding combined use of gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound including color and power Doppler ultrasonography for the assessment of ovarian masses. Our results show that conventional 2D sonography, in conjunction with latest advancements helps improving the diagnosis based on typical sonographic appearances of masses. Screening for ovarian cancer also proves to be helpful for early diagnosis and improvement in survival rate.
Conclusion: Ultrasonoraphy and its different modalities such as 3DUS, CEUS, elastography along with conventional 2D and Doppler studies accurately identifies morphologic, structural and vascular featuresof the adnexal masses and differential diagnosis by escapingunnecessary surgeries and improving the survival rate.
Keywords: Ultrasonography, Ovarian masses, malignant ovarian masses, contrast enhanced ultrasound,