Background: Polyps of female reproductive tract are found
in about 7.8-50% of women. Endometrial polyps are commonly located at the
fundal or the tubocornual region. They mechanically affect female’s fertility
and disturbs the normal cellular function due to chronic inflammation. To rule
out sub clinical endometrial hyperplasia or cancer, endometrial curettage is
often recommended. Cervical polyps may grow during pregnancy or mucorrhoea.
Aim: To highlight updates to the epidemiology, clinical presentation and
diagnostic techniques for gynaecological polyps.
Study design: Systemic review
Methods: During December 2020 we searched Google scholar, Pub med, Medscape, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database and
Magiran research articles from 2010 -2020. The selected articles
identified through electronic search were 60 articles and 50 were selected for
Endometrial polyps are the most frequently diagnosed gynaecological polyp,
their prevalence ranging from 7.8% to 50%. They are implicated in about 50% of
cases of abnormal uterine bleeding and 35% of patients presenting with
infertility. The developments of high-resolution 2D and 4D ultrasound, contrast
enhanced sonography and hysteroscopy helps in diagnosing polyps efficiently. In
certain cases, when hysteroscopy cannot be
performed sonohysterography and ultrasonography can be used for screening. Hysteroscopy
is the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of gynaecological polyps and
histopathology is essential for the ultimate diagnosis and exclusion of
Conclusions: The review of literature suggest that the gynaecological polyps are one
of the most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding and have strong
association with infertility as they interfere with implantation of an embryo.
Polyps can be confidently diagnosed on ultrasound. Other imaging techniques may
provide additional information about the details of the anatomy of female
reproductive tract and the polyp itself.
polyp, Cervical polyp, Vaginal/vulvar polyp, Infertility, Ultrasonography,