Introduction: It is necessary to identify the factors affecting the behaviors of the parents, especially mothers, in improving children's oral and dental health according to the theories of behavior change. This research aimed at determining the role of mothers in improving the oral and dental health of the children on the basis of the planned behavior theory.
Materials & Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional study. The research population included 240 subjects selected through the stratified random sampling from the mothers in the city of Ilam, Iran. The data collection tool was a questionnaire, which consisted of two sections: seven demographic and background questions, five items about attitude, four items about subjective norms, and five items concerning behavioral intention, which were completed as self-report. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-21 software through descriptive and analytical tests such as independent t-test, linear regression, and Pearson correlation coefficient that were examined and had a significant level of 0.05.
Findings: The participants’ age ranged from 20 to 44 (mean=5.67±31.8). The linear regression test indicated the structure of attitude (B=0.135, P<0.001), perceived behavioral control (B= 0.398, P<0.001), subjective norms (B= 0.236, P<0.001), and explained the 46% of the behavioral intention variance.
Conclusion: Taking into account the impact of the attitude structure on the behavioral intention predicting, therefore, this structure should be employed in designing the preventive training programs in the framework of the theory of the planned behavior.
Keywords: Attitude, Theory of Planned Behavior, Mothers, Dental Health