S. A. Hamza, S. Asif, S. A. H. Bokhari
Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences

Peer Reviewed

Previous Published Issues



Aim: Smoking induces changes in salivary inflammatory biomarker levels associated with oral diseases. This study status and explored association among salivary Interleukin-1β, oral diseases and smoking.

Methods: Data of male smokers of a private institute recruited for a randomized clinical trial is analyzed for this paper. Demographic and systemic information were collected. Oral disease status was examined and saliva sample collected for IL-1β levels. IL-1β levels and other study variables were analyzed with respect to smoking status categorized into smoking years and cigarettes per day. The student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 22) with significance level of p≤0.050. Results: Analysis of baseline data of seventy-eight smokers showed elevated levels of IL-1β with increasing smoking, higher BMI. Smoking was higher among aged, married and low-income individuals. Pearson partial correlation analysis, after controlling age, marital status, education, income, and BMI, demonstrated a positive significant relationship of smoking per day with smoking years; dental caries with missing teeth and calculus; gingivitis with missing teeth and calculus; periodontitis with dental caries, calculus and gingivitis. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates that levels of IL-1β were raised in smokers, however; there was no association with oral disease parameters. Large studies may be conducted to observe status and association of smoking, oral disease and salivary biomarkers.

Keywords: Smoking, Oral Health, IL-1β, Males

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