Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the severity of symptoms and outcomes among vaccinated and non-vaccinated COVID 19 patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Study Design: A Retrospective/ Comparative study
Place and Duration: The study was conducted at Medicine department of Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar and DHQ Category A Hospital, Batkhela for duration of six months between December 2020 and May 2021.
Methods: Total 170 patients of both genders had coronavirus disease were presented in this study. Patients were aged between 20-80 years. Demographical details of patients including age, sex, body mass index, residency and socio-economic status were recorded after taking informed written consent. Patients were admitted in COVID 19 ward. There were 70 vaccinated patients in group I and 100 non-vaccinated patients in group II. Co-morbidities among both groups were assessed. Effectiveness and outcomes among both groups were calculated in terms of mortality and reduction in severity of disease. Complete data was analyzed by SPSS 19.0 version.
Results: There were 114 (67.1%) patients were males (50 in group I and 64 in group II) and 56 (32.4%) were females (28 in each group). Mean age of the vaccinated patients was 49.16 ±8.55 years with mean BMI 33.16 ±4.64 kg/m2 and in group II mean age was 47.18 ±4.77 years with mean BMI 31.12±12.73 kg/m2.Among 70 cases of group I, 40 (57.1%) were fully vaccinated and 30 (42.9%) patients received their first dose. 50 (71.4%) were educated in group I and in group II 46 (46%) patients were literate. Co-morbidities were diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischaemic heart and chronic lung disease. Effectiveness among patients of group I was greater 55 (78.6%) as compared to non-vaccinated 36 (36%). Frequency of adverse outcomes hospitalization 10 (10%), ICU admission 14 (14%) and mortality 40 (40%) among non-vaccinated patients were significantly higher as compared to vaccinated patients in which hospitalization 3 (4.3%), ICU admission 2 (2.9%) and mortality was found in 10 (14.3%) cases.
Conclusion: We concluded in this study that vaccination against coronavirus disease was effective and helpful for the reduction in severity of the disease. Except this the frequency of adverse outcomes (hospitalization, ICU admission and mortality) can be minimized by vaccination and there is need to give awareness among people to get vaccinated early.
Keywords: COVID 19, Vaccination, Pandemic, Mortality