Coronaviruses are detected in humans and mammals; these are big-size and single-stranded RNA viruses with nucleocapsid. SARS-CoV-2 has included four structural proteins (S, E, M, and N); between these proteins, S protein makes attaching ability in the virus. This ability causes the virus to bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2) and host cell membrane in targeted tissues. Currently, several mutations of SARS-CoV-2 were identified. On the other hand, these new mutations cause SARS-CoV-2 to have different variants with various severity, such as the South African variant (B.1.351) and the UK variant (B.1.1.7). Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, diverse therapeutics routes and prevention assays have been applied, following that several drugs and therapy assays have been investigated. One of the most important routes in this pandemic is the vaccine. Currently, at least in all of the world, almost 13 vaccines have been accepted with different mechanisms against COVID-19. This review explored current mRNA and non-mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and their immunogenicity, safety, and Efficacy. We substantially focused on emerging mutations, the glycoprotein of the spike, and variants of concern (VOCs). Due to recently published articles of selected data, there were no specific outcomes to distinguished and compared between complete Efficacy and safety of approved vaccines against COVID-19. However, it must be noticed that widespread vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and its different variants is necessary. This review is a novel study in the duration of the pandemic of COVID-19, and it needs additional particular studies. Hence we desire other scientists and related researchers to continue assessing this topic.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccines, non-mRNA vaccines, Efficacy of vaccine, COVID-19, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Mutation, Variant of coronavirus, public health