Sabahat Gul, Sumaira Hassan, Urooj Fatima

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Background: Umbilical Cord Knots both true and false are common abnormalities whichobstruct the blood flow and oxygen supply to the fetus and are frequently associated with advanced age and high parity of the mother.

Aim: To find the frequency of true and falseumbilical cord knots in 100 samples of placentae (with attached umbilical cords ) and their relation to maternal age and parity.

Study design: Descriptive cross sectional study.

Place of study: Anatomy Department of (BMSI) Basic Medical Science Institute, JPMC Karachi.

Methodology: 100 normal vaginally delivered full term placentae with attached umbilical cords were studied with direct Visual examination of the cords. The study included frequency, type and location of the knots and their relation with maternal age and parity. Data collected was analyzed by SPSS version 23 and presented in the form of tables and figures, cross tabulations of umbilical cord knots with age of mother and parity was done. Chi square test was used as test of significance asvariablesunder study are qualitative in nature.

Results: This study showed that frequency of umbilical cord knots in 100 samples of placentae was 14% out of which 10(72%) were false knot and 4(28%) were true knot. Bothtrue and false knots were more frequent in male babies. There was statistically significant relation of knots with advanced maternal age (>30) and high parity (>5).

Conclusion: Frequency of true umbilical cord knots is 4%. Most of knots are found in male babies and there is statistically significant relation of umbilical cord knots with advanced maternal age and high parity.

Keywords: Umbilical cord, true knots, false knots, fetus.

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