Background: Ovarian dysfunction is a condition in which ovaries stop working and menstrual periods stops before age 40. This can cause fertility problems. There are several causes of ovarian dysfunction causing infertility such as endometriosis, ovarian torsion etc. Aim: To revise the current literature about causes of ovarian dysfunction and its sonographic findings in infertile women. Methods: Electronic data base search was performed (PubMed, Science direct, Google Scholar) with data range from 2000 to 2019. All the data is available online in English. Results: Seventeen articles were found regarding different causes of ovarian dysfunction and their sonographic appearance. Also our results show that ultrasound can be used as a reliable tool for detection of ovarian pathologies. Conclusion: This study supports a temporal association between various causes of ovarian dysfunction and infertility risk. Gray-scale in addition to color Doppler ultrasound serves an important role in detection of different causes of ovarian dysfunction and their sonographic appearances.