Hasan Yahya1, Fauzan Kurniawan Dhani1, Ryan Ramon1, Muhammad Rifki1 Setiawan, Andry Gonius1, Kurnia Penta Seputra
Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences

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Hypertension as a Determinant of Kidney Malignancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Hasan Yahya1, Fauzan Kurniawan Dhani1, Ryan Ramon1, Muhammad Rifki1 Setiawan, Andry Gonius1, Kurnia Penta Seputra



Background: Hypertension becomes a global health burden which is affecting 3 in 10 adults over 20 years old, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Hypertension almost asymptomatically detected when the patient is on a regular check-up. Kidney cancer becomes the 13thmost common type of urinary tract cancer worldwide, approximately accountsforup to 4% of all-cause malignancy.The incidentof urinary tract malignancy diagnosed every year is approximately more than one third of 1 million individuals. The character of which hypertension becomes a determinantof kidney cancer is left tonot fully understoodeven with the proposed mechanismhas been established.

Aim: We performed meta-analysisregarding hypertension as a determinant ofkidney malignancy using materials that were comprehensively taken from a number of databases.

Methods: Studies were obtained by using PubMed and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Keywords were “Hypertension”. “Kidney”, and “Cancer”. Studies published between 2013 and 2020 were included in this review. Inclusion criteria were full-text observational prospective studies andalso the positive cancer patient with hypertension or blood pressure noted in examination (SBP or DBP). Thedata were analysed to measurethe incidence of kidney malignancy as ofRiskRatio (RR), while the confidence intervals (CIs) was 95%. Articles which are retrospective studies and/or not written in English were excluded. From 1,970 studies, a total of 5 studies including 378,488 patients were eligible for this study. The review method was followingPRISMA Review and Metaanalysis. The inputwere then assessed and statistically examined by using RevMan (5.3.0) statistical instrument.

Results: From 5 eligiblearticles included, the statistic suggested a significant association (P<0,05) between hypertension andkidney cancerwith1,79pooledriskratio (95% Confidence Interval, 1,63 – 1,95; P=0,00001) and low heterogeneity (I2=38%; P=0,17).

Conclusion: Our analysis indicates that hypertension is associated with kidney cancer occurrence.

Keywords: Cancer, Hypertension, Kidney

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