determine the prevalence of albuminuria in apparently healthy individuals of
Lahore and find the association of risk factors with albuminuria
design: Cross sectional survey.
and duration of study: PHRC
Research Centre NHRC, Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex, Lahore from 1st
January 2019 to 29th February 2020
was conducted after the ethical clearance from IRB of SZMC and permission from
TMOs, Heads of union councils and commandant of DHA in Lahore. Two thousand and
forty two subjects fulfilling the inclusion
criteria were enrolled and interviewed to fill-up the questionnaire. All
subjects were tested for Albumin: Creatinine ratio in morning spot urine
Results: Overall prevalence of albuminuria was found to be 20.57%.
Factors like old age (24.1% with p=0.004), obesity (26.6% with p< 0.0001)
showed significant association with the presence of albuminuria. A positive
family history of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and hypertension were also
found to be strongly associated with albuminuria (p-values=0.0001, 0.002 and
Conclusion: All at risk healthy individuals should be screened for albuminuria
for early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.
Keywords: Albuminuria, Microalbuminuria, Chronic kidney disease, Renal
impairment, Albumin creatinine ratio