Muhammad Uthman Ahmad, Syed Naeemullah
Aim: To study the association of retinopathy with level of HbA1C in T2 DM patients.
Study design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and duration of study: This study is a 3 days study, conducted on 100 patients, who visited on 3 consecutive diabetic days of year 2012-2014 at Endocrine Clinic Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore.
Methodology: One hundred adult type II diabetic patients of both genders were studied to see association of HbA1C (%) & age with the grades of retinopathy. Patients were divided into 3 categories based on HbA1C levels viz. 7-7.5%, 7.6-9% and 9.1-11%. On the basis of fundoscopy, patients were grouped into 3 categories, group 1: No Diabetic Retinopathy (NDR), group 2: Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR, includes background & pre-proliferative) and group 3: Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR).
Results: Out of total 100 diabetic patients, 56% were males and 44% were females with a mean age was 40-58 years (50.55+5.17). Mean HbA1C was 7.1-11% (9.16+1.16). 8% patients showed no evidence of retinopathy with age range of 44-58 years (50.89+5.03), 37% had Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NDPR) with age range of40-58 years (49.92+5.4). & 55% had Proliferative Retinopathy (PDR) with age range of 42-58 years (50.93+5.06). Mean HbA1C was 7.2-9% (7.96+0.67); 7.1-11% (8.85+1.17); 7.6-11% (9.55+1.03), in all 3 groups i.e. No Retinopathy, Non Proliferative Retinopathy & Proliferative Retinopathy respectively.
Conclusion: This study has suggested that variation in HbA1C is directly related to the visual symptom stages and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Periodic screening with HbA1C is a cost effective, diagnostic and prognostic tool for the prevention of sight loss, or sight related complications in all diabetics.
Keywords: Retinopathy Grades, HbA1C, Fundoscopy, T2DM