Epidemiological Features of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Hilly and Plot Areas of Tribal Districts, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province Pakistan


  • Waseem Sajjjad, Mohsina Haq, Ihteshamul Haq, Hamid Ali Khan, Noor Ul Basir, Rabia Mazhar, Muhammad Jawad Ullah, Faiza Rashid, Mian Sami Ullah, Jauhar Nafees, Zeeshan Ahmad




Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, outbreak


Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is caused by flagellated parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania and is spread by vectors. This is a new threat that is endemic to the tropics and subtropics and has a broad geographic distribution. The current research was carried out in all tribal districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to 2020. The prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis was found to be higher in children aged 5 to 10 years old in the current research, due to a weakened immune system. In the province, 23 species of phlebotomine sand-flies belonging to the genera Phlebotomus Sergentomyia and grassomiya were discovered. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is caused by flagellated parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania, which are transmitted via the bite of a mosquito. This is an emergent threat and endemic in areas of tropic and sub-tropics and has the epidemiological aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis during the recent epidemic in tribal districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2020. The suspected patients of Leishmaniasis from different areas of tribal districts were examined. We came across 700 cases during 3-month period from may  to july2020. A major portion G2 ([41.1%; n = 290) of these patients were in age 6 to–10 years. The infection rate was higher in male (75.3%; n = 525) compared to females (25%;n = 125). Both gender and age showed a significant effect on the occurrence of infection. The current study report CL outbreak in the tribal districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which need immediate response from the healthcare authorities. In addition, extensive awareness campaigns are needed for timely prevention of such outbreak.