Socio-Economic and Health Determinants of Child Labor: An Overview of Multiple index Cluster Survey


  • Iftikhar Ali, Munazzah Manzoor, Shabbir Ahmad, Sidra Noreen, Ashir Masroor, Zia Mahmood



Demographic, Determinants, Household Level, Child Labor, Northern, Karakoram


This paper identifies the various determinants of child labor and analyzes the variation in child labor with different socio-economic and demographic factors in the northern Karakoram region of Pakistan. For this paper, the data related to the different socio-economic and demographic variables of child labor have been used from the Gilgit-Baltistan “Multiple Index Cluster Survey (2016-17)” of 6,213 households conducted by the provincial government of Gilgit-Baltistan. The results of the demographic determinants have revealed that the prevalence of child labor is significantly high in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The results also found that there is no significant variation in child labor with gender. While the incidence of child labor increases with age in the study area. Similarly, the findings show a positive relationship between poverty and child labor as the incidence of child labor and children working under hazardous conditions increases with the downward shift from the richest to the poorest wealth index quintile. These hazardous conditions are responsible for multiple health implication for children.  Finally, in terms of variation in child labor across divisions and districts of Gilgit-Baltistan province results reveal that the prevalence of child labor is highest in the Baltistan division followed by Diamer and Gilgit division. Regarding the variation across districts, results show that the incidence of child labor is highest in district Nagar while lowest in district Gilgit. The most important measure to combat child labor in this region is the sensitization and awareness of parents about the issue of child labor.